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Yellow-headed Amazon Parrots
The ochrocephala complex
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Distribution: from Mexico in north to Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador in south.
Oratrix in north and ochrocephala in south. Much yellow in north and less yellow in south.
There are feral populations of oratrix in California, Florida and Puerto Rico.
At present, 11 taxa are recognized. A 12th population, the "guatemalensis", is known,
but not yet formally named. The 1980 edition of Howard and Moore did not split the then known
sub-species, but included all in Amazona ochrocephala. Therefore, all of these Yellow-headed
Amazon Parrots are Yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala in the taxonomy
used by "Collect Birds on Stamps". Splitting into three species, may be done in various ways, as you can see below.
"Handbook of the Birds of the World" concludes that "Patterns of variation remains unclear", and, "On present knowledge, entire complex is probably best regarded as a single species".
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